Thai Language Grammar: Using “until”

In this post, we are going to learn different ways of using the word “UNTIL” in Thai language, so you understand how to express yourself correctly in different situations.

1. Preposition: jun-theung (จนถึง)

When we want to express that something is happening at a particular point in time, and then stopping; or to continue as far as a particular place, we use “jun-theung” (จนถึง). It has the same meaning as “up to” or “as far as” and is normally follow by a noun.

Observe the following examples below: 

chan tham-ngaan thee-nan jun-theung bpee neung-gao-gao-gao
ฉันทำงานที่นั่นจนถึงปี หนึ่ง-เก้า-เก้า-เก้า
(I worked there until 1999)

kao bpen phoo-nam garn-kaeng-kan jun-theung koong sud-taai
(He was leading the race until the final bend)

yoo bon rot-may jun-theung supermarket yai, jaak nan lung lae lio saai
(Stay on the bus until the big supermarket, then get off and turn left)

jun-theung dtawn-nee tuk-yaang nai chee-wid kawng-ter dai-rap garn-doo-lae hai ter
(Up until now, everything in her life has been taken care of for her)

chan awk-gam-lang-gaai thee rong-yim dtang-dtae hok mong yen jun-theung neung thum kreung
(I worked out at the gym from 6 pm until 7.30 pm.)

2. Conjunction: jun-gwa (จนกว่า)

When we want to express that one thing will continue up to a point in the future unless something else happened, we use “jun-gwa” (จนกว่า). It has a similar meaning as “only until”, “not until” or “only when” and it’s normally used to connect two clauses.

Observe the following examples below: 

phuak-rao ja yoo thee-nee jun-gwa ter ja ma-theung
(We will stay here until she arrives)

phuak-rao raw thee-nee jun-gwa fon ja yud dtok teut
(Let’s wait here until the rain stops)

khun ja dtawn raw jun-gwa phuak-kao ja riak cheu khun
(You will have to wait until they call your name)

tham bpai reuay-reuay jun-gwa chan ja bawk hai khun yud
(Keep doing it until I tell you to stop)

yoo bon rot-may jun-gwa khun ja hen supermarket yai, jaak nan lung lae lio saai
(Stay on the bus until you see a big supermarket, then get off and turn left)

3. Conjunction: jun-gra-thang (จนกระทั่ง)

When we want to express that an action or event has happened or will happen up at a particular point in time, then stopping because another action happened or will happen, we use “jun-gra-thang” (จนกระทั่ง). It has similar meaning as “up until” (a time mentioned) and it is used to connect two actions or events.

phuak-rao nang kui gan jun-gra-thang meud
(We sat chatting until it got dark)

chan yoo thee-nan jun-gra-thang kao ma-theung
(I stayed there until he arrived)

chan mai sa-maad bpai dai jun-gra-thang luuk-sao leuhk ngaan
(I can’t go until my daughter finishes work)

mai mee krai awk jaak hawng jun-gra-thang garn-sun-ta-naa job-lung
(No one left the room until the talk ended)

phuak-rao ja yoo thee baan kawng mae jun-gra-thang ngaan-liang sed
(We will stay at mum’s house until the party finishes)

kao bpen kroo-yai jun-gra-thang kao gae-sian nai bpee neung-gao-hok-bpaed
(He was the headteacher until he retired in 1968)

phuak-rao yoo bon rot-may jun-gra-thang phuak-rao hen supermarket yai, gawn lung lae lio saai
(We stayed on the bus until we saw a big supermarket, before got off and turned left)